If Donald Trump runs for the Republican Party’s 2024 presidential nomination, “he wins in a landslide”—according to Mitt Romney, the Republican senator, a longtime Trump critic who voted twice to impeach him, and a former presidential candidate himself. But some Republican leaders—and voters—have recently raised questions about how much influence Trump still has over their party. In primary elections on May 10, the candidate Trump backed for the House of Representatives won in West Virginia, but in Nebraska, the candidate for governor he backed lost. In the Republican primary for a U.S. Senate seat in Ohio last week, Trump’s endorsement helped the candidate J.D. Vance top a crowded field—but with only 32 percent of the vote. Meanwhile, Maryland’s Governor Larry Hogan, who’s won two terms as a Republican in a predominantly Democratic state, said last week that it was time for the party to move on from Trump. The former president’s legal circumstances also cloud his political future, as a grand jury in Georgia began hearing evidence this month that he committed felonies while trying to overturn the state’s 2020 election results. Where exactly does Trump now stand in the Republican Party?

Rachel Blum is an assistant professor of political science at Oklahoma University and the author of How the Tea Party Captured the GOP. In Blum’s view, it’s too early in the primary process for this year’s U.S. midterm elections to judge how much sway still Trump has. But party elites care above all about winning—and they don’t necessarily care for Donald Trump, so if they think he’s harming the party’s chances of beating Democrats, they won’t hesitate to abandon him. The party’s main activist groups vary in how loyal they are to the former president; some support him zealously, while many Republican-affiliated groups work with him only pragmatically. Among Republican voters generally, Blum says, the depth of fealty to Trump is an open question. He brought a lot of new voters into the party by speaking to pervasive feelings about their status and privileges being threatened. But as Blum sees it, many Republicans still identify with the party itself, and with what they see as conservative values and policies, independently of Trump—making it unclear what will happen if they come to see him as a liability to realizing those things.

Michael Bluhm: What effect do you see Trump’s endorsement having in the Republican Party’s current primary elections?

Rachel Blum: In West Virginia, one of the candidates was Trump-endorsed and a member of the Freedom Caucus, the most conservative bloc of Republicans in the House of Representatives. It’s not surprising that he did so well in a state where Trump did so well himself in 2016 and 2020. Even without Trump’s endorsement, a Freedom Caucus candidate probably would have done well there. In Nebraska, however, Trump’s candidate lost. That was a governor’s race, which is different; and Nebraska is a very different state than West Virginia. We could argue that Nebraska voters are less sympathetic to a celebrity-style candidate. In Ohio, Trump’s candidate won—and also happened to be a minor celebrity—but with a plurality, not a majority.

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