Feb. 21, 2024 |

History begins again. February 24 will mark the second anniversary of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. Last May, Ivan Krastev looked at how the war is changing Europe—seeing the conflict as fundamentally transforming its politics, its security considerations, and even its conception of itself.

And yet, Krastev says, these changes are driving Europeans in conflicting directions: With some favoring greater integration of their content, others are turning to the idea of strengthening their individual nation-states instead—a tension that will shape European life in the coming years.